Transcription of the 1789 Joint Resolution of Congress Proposing 12 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.
Article the first… After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.
Article the second… No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
Article the third… Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Article the fourth… A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
Article the fifth… No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Article the sixth… The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Article the seventh… No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Article the eighth… In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
Article the ninth… In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Article the tenth… Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Article the eleventh… The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Article the twelfth… The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Speaker of the House of Representatives
John Adams, Vice-President of the United States, and President of the Senate
John Beckley, Clerk of the House of Representatives.
Sam. A Otis Secretary of the Senate
NEVADA TO JERUSALEM
(“His word is in my heart like a fire,
a fire shut up in my bones.
I am weary of holding it in;
indeed, I cannot.”–Jer. 20:9)
This is a country for a holy man:
Deserts like Moses knew, Sierra snows
As white as souls wiped clean, and tourist bands
Who come to plug the emptiness in souls
By playing slot machines: in short, a land
Where Paul and Peter might have rivaled shows,
Teaching Christ crucified upon a tree,
To fill those voids with Gospel truth for free.
A man of middle age cannot aspire
To a youngster’s speed, and plods along to court
To plead the cause of clients, rich and poor,
Sinners all. He’ll bring God a sad report
Unless his bones are burnt by holy fire,
And like a faithful witness he exhorts
Those who prefer to mock and toss the dice
Rather than seek a place in Paradise.
Angels and demons fight an unseen war,
Hendrix replaces Bach, police patrols
Bust drunks and punks, and mourn the liquor store
And crankster’s needle, symptoms of a soul
So self-indulgent Conscience works no more,
A lethal weapon on remote control.
God calls for many, is answered by few,
And battles rage on every avenue.
When Bride and Bridegroom meet in air, foreknown,
God’s trumpet call will stun the West and East,
As he, the chosen precious cornerstone
Who built a nation of his royal priests,
Returns and claims the spotless Bride, His own,
To take her to the Lamb’s Great Wedding Feast
Prepared in heavenly Jerusalem
By Him who was, and is, and is to come.
Will have much more,
Because they share
Food with the poor.
1 Now on day twenty-four, the seventh month,
Israel’s people fasted, and they dressed
In sackcloth and threw dirt upon their heads
To show their sorrow. 2 They refused to let
Foreigners join them, as they gathered to
Confess their sins as well as sins of their
Ancestors. 3 For three hours they stood and heard
Law of the Lord their God, and for the next
Three hours confessed their sins and worshiped God.
4 Jeshua, Bani, Kadmiel, Shebaniah, Chenani,
Bunni, Sherebiah, and Bani stood
Upon the special platform for the Levites
And prayed aloud unto the Lord their God,
5 Then Levites Kadmiel, Jeshua, Bani,
Hashabneiah, Sherebiah and
Hodiah, Shebaniah, Pethahiah
Said: “Stand and shout your praises
to your Lord,
Th’eternal God, and praise his
Though he is greater than mere words can tell.”
6 You only are the Lord, Creator of
The heavens and the stars, Creator of
The earth and all those who reside on it,
Creator of the ocean and its creatures.
You are the source of life, praised by
That fill the heavens; 7 you’re the Lord our God,
The one who picked out Abram—
you brought him
From Ur in Babylonia and named
Him Abraham, 8 and since he was so faithful,
You did agree to furnish his descendants
The land of Canaanites and Hittites, of
The Amorites and Perizzites, and of
The Jebusites and Girgashites. Now you
Have kept your promise, as you always do.
9 Now when our fathers were in Egypt, you
Observed their suffering, and when
At the Red Sea, you heard their cry for help.
10 You knew the King of Egypt and his staff
And nation had mistreated your own people,
And worked your awesome miracles against
Egyptians and you earned a reputation
That still remains. 11 You split the deep
Your people walked through on the dry
You tossed their enemies in, and they sank
Down like a heavy stone. 12 Each day
Your people with a thick cloud, and at night
You showed the way with flaming fire. 13 At Sinai
You came from heaven, and you gave
Good laws and teachings that are fair
14 You ordered them to keep your holy Sabbath
And told your servant Moses to instruct
Them in your laws. 15 When they
were hungry, you
Sent bread from heaven, and when they
You let some water flow out from a rock,
Then you commanded them to capture land
That you had promised them. 16 Our
Would not obey—as they forgot about
The miracles that you had worked for them,
And they became determined to return
To Egypt and be slaves again, 17 but you,
Our God, are merciful and you forgive
Quickly; you’re loving, kind, and patient, so
You never turned from them—18 not
They made a calf-shaped idol, insulting
You, claiming, “This god rescued us from Egypt.”
19 Because of your great mercy, never did
You leave them in the desert, and
Them with a cloud by day, a fire at night.
20 Your gentle Spirit taught them, and to eat
You gave them manna with some water they
Could drink. 21 You took good care of them,
Forty whole years they never lacked a thing.
Their shoes did not wear out, and
Feet swollen, 22 and you let them conquer kings
And take their land, including King Sihon
Of Heshbon and King Og of Bashan, 23 and
You brought them to the land you’d promised to
Their ancestors; you blessed their
The people that outnumbered the sky’s stars,
24 Then their descendants conquered land, and you
Helped them defeat the kings and
To treat their enemies however they
Desired; 25 they captured robust cities and
Rich farmland; they took furnished
Took cisterns, vineyards, olive orchards, and
Numerous fruit trees, and they ate till they
Were satisfied and celebrated your
Abundant blessings, 26 but despite this, they
Rebelled and disobeyed your laws: They killed
Your prophets, who did warn them to
To you, and yet they cursed your name,
27 so you
Handed them to their enemies, who treated
Them terribly, but in their sufferings,
They begged you for your help; from
Did hear their prayers and due to your great mercy,
Sent leaders out to rescue them, 28 but when
They were at peace, they would turn against
You, and you would hand them to enemies,
Then they would beg for help, and as
Merciful, you did save them over and over
Again; 29 you warned them to turn back and to
Discover true life following your laws,
But they were hard and they refused
On sinning; 30 and for years, you were still patient;
Your Spirit warned them with the messages
Your prophets spoke; but they refused
You gave them to their enemies, 31 but you
Are kind and merciful, and so you never
Forgot them or let them be ruined; 32 you,
Our God, you’re mighty, fearsome, trustworthy
And faithful with your word, so please recall
The sufferings of our kings, people, priests,
Leaders, and prophets, Assyria’s
Time of control until this very day.
33 Always you have been fair
Us for our sins. 34 Our leaders, kings, and priests
Have never followed your commands
Your warnings; 35 you blessed them with
And with a treasure of rich, fertile land,
But they refused to worship you or turn
From wickedness; 36 now we are
This fruitful land you gave our ancestors.
37 Its harvest, plentiful, is taken by
Kings you placed over us due to our sins.
We cannot bear our suffering, for they
Do as they wish to us and our own livestock;
38 And so, a firm agreement was made that
Had the official sanction of the leaders,
The Levites, and the priests to meet
Bible Verses against Child Sacrifice
“You shall not give any of your offspring to offer them to Molech, nor shall you profane the name of your God; I am the LORD.”
There shall not be found among you anyone who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, one who uses divination, one who practices witchcraft, or one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer,
2 Kings 3:27
Then he took his oldest son who was to reign in his place, and offered him as a burnt offering on the wall. And there came great wrath against Israel, and they departed from him and returned to their own land.
2 Kings 16:3
But he walked in the way of the kings of Israel, and even made his son pass through the fire, according to the abominations of the nations whom the LORD had driven out from before the sons of Israel.
2 Chronicles 28:3
Moreover, he burned incense in the valley of Ben-hinnom and burned his sons in fire, according to the abominations of the nations whom the LORD had driven out before the sons of Israel.
2 Kings 17:17
Then they made their sons and their daughters pass through the fire, and practiced divination and enchantments, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, provoking Him.
2 Kings 21:6
He made his son pass through the fire, practiced witchcraft and used divination, and dealt with mediums and spiritists. He did much evil in the sight of the LORD provoking Him to anger.
2 Chronicles 33:6
He made his sons pass through the fire in the valley of Ben-hinnom; and he practiced witchcraft, used divination, practiced sorcery and dealt with mediums and spiritists. He did much evil in the sight of the LORD, provoking Him to anger.
2 Kings 23:10
He also defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire for Molech.
Who inflame yourselves among the oaks, Under every luxuriant tree, Who slaughter the children in the ravines, Under the clefts of the crags?
They have built the high places of Topheth, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire, which I did not command, and it did not come into My mind.
You shall not behave thus toward the LORD your God, for every abominable act which the LORD hates they have done for their gods; for they even burn their sons and daughters in the fire to their gods.
“You shall also say to the sons of Israel: ‘Any man from the sons of Israel or from the aliens sojourning in Israel who gives any of his offspring to Molech, shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones. ‘I will also set My face against that man and will cut him off from among his people, because he has given some of his offspring to Molech, so as to defile My sanctuary and to profane My holy name. ‘If the people of the land, however, should ever disregard that man when he gives any of his offspring to Molech, so as not to put him to death,’”
But they mingled with the nations And learned their practices, And served their idols, Which became a snare to them. They even sacrificed their sons and their daughters to the demons,
“They built the high places of Baal that are in the valley of Ben-hinnom to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire to Molech, which I had not commanded them nor had it entered My mind that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin.
And now they sin more and more, And make for themselves molten images, Idols skillfully made from their silver, All of them the work of craftsmen They say of them, “Let the men who sacrifice kiss the calves!”
and I pronounced them unclean because of their gifts, in that they caused all their firstborn to pass through the fire so that I might make them desolate, in order that they might know that I am the LORD.”’
“When you offer your gifts, when you cause your sons to pass through the fire, you are defiling yourselves with all your idols to this day. And shall I be inquired of by you, O house of Israel? As I live,” declares the Lord GOD, “I will not be inquired of by you.
“For they have committed adultery, and blood is on their hands. Thus they have committed adultery with their idols and even caused their sons, whom they bore to Me, to pass through the fire to them as food.
“Because they have forsaken Me and have made this an alien place and have burned sacrifices in it to other gods, that neither they nor their forefathers nor the kings of Judah had ever known, and because they have filled this place with the blood of the innocent and have built the high places of Baal to burn their sons in the fire as burnt offerings to Baal, a thing which I never commanded or spoke of, nor did it ever enter My mind;
“Moreover, you took your sons and daughters whom you had borne to Me and sacrificed them to idols to be devoured. Were your harlotries so small a matter? “You slaughtered My children and offered them up to idols by causing them to pass through the fire.
Now it came about after these things, that God tested Abraham, and said to him, “Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.” He said, “Take now your son, your only son, whom you love, Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell you.”
By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was offering up his only begotten son;
and said, “By Myself I have sworn, declares the LORD, because you have done this thing and have not withheld your son, your only son,
“For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.
He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him over for us all, how will He not also with Him freely give us all things?
and have built the high places of Baal to burn their sons in the fire as burnt offerings to Baal, a thing which I never commanded or spoke of, nor did it ever enter My mind;
“You slaughtered My children and offered them up to idols by causing them to pass through the fire.
2 Kings 17:31
and the Avvites made Nibhaz and Tartak; and the Sepharvites burned their children in the fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech the gods of Sepharvaim.